General reading

Here you can find some Finnish publications related to Finnish homelessness and long-term homelessness and the history behind the Finnish homelessness reduction programmes.

 Pathways through Homelessness in Helsinki

Kostiainen, Eeva

This article was published in European Journal of Homelessness, Volume 9.2, December 2015.

The Finnish Homelessness Strategy : From a ‘Staircase’ Model to a ‘Housing First’ Approach to Tackling Long-Term Homelessness


Fredriksson, Peter & Tainio, Hannele


This paper reviews the Finnish Government’s recently established Programme to Reduce Long-Term Homelessness, which is attempting to halve long-term homelessness over the period 2008 to 2011. It outlines the current homeless situation in Finland and describes the development of the present system of provision. Despite change over time, the emphasis has tended to remain on the ‘staircase’ model of provision for long-term homeless people, common
across Nordic countries, which requires people to demonstrate an ability to move from one level of accommodation to another by addressing lifestyle issues, particularly problematic alcohol use. In contrast, the new programme focuses firmly on the extension of ‘housing first’ principles, already in use for some groups, to homeless people with high levels of support needs. We argue that this emphasis is to be welcomed but that there is a need for a more detailed analysis of the elements required in successful ‘housing first’ solutions.


Host Country Report. Long-Term Homelessness Reduction Programme 2008-2011. Ministry of the Environment Finland


Luomanen, Riikka


The report outlines the national long-term homelessness reduction programme and offers for example general evaluation of the implementation of the programme and the major needs for change during the extension period 2012-2015.

Economical Effects of the Reduction of Homelessness


Ministry of the Environment in Finland


The report, published in 2011, deals mainly with the positive effects of the housing counselling, but the housing first principle in the context of the reduction of long-term homelessness and the intensified supported housing is also present in the publication. According to the report the housing first principle has positive effects on both fighting homelessness and the expenses deriving from homelessness.


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Observations from the first year of the Finnish Name on the door project – recommendations for the long-term homelessness reduction programme for years 2012-2015


Granfelt, Riitta & Kettunen, Marko


On request from the PAAVO (Finnish National Programme to Reduce Long-Term Homelessness 2008-2011) steering group this paper presents some of the core observations and conclusions of the development work done in the Name on the door project so far. These findings  are ought to work as guiding ideas for the realization of the second national long-term homelessness reduction programme. These proposals are based on the aim of ending the long-term homelessness until 2015.


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24.04.2015 The Own Keys Project by the Finnish NGO Vailla vakinaista asuntoa (NO Fixed Abode NGO) in the FEANTSA Homeless in Europe Magazine spring issue

The FEANTSA Homeless in Europe Magazine discusses Participation: Inclusion, Empowerment and Routes Out of Homelessness. In "Nothing About Us Without Us! The Own Keys Project – People Who Have Experienced Homelessness Develop Services" by Carole Brady, Raija Maunula and Vlada Petrovskaja describe the main themes found out in their project: the importance of trust in cooperation as well as successes and challenges in the work.

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11.02.2015 FACTS, FINDINGS AND THE FUTURE - Seminar on the international review of the Finnish National Program to Reduce Long-term Homelessness

Results from the international research evaluation on the Program to Reduce Long-term Homelessness (2008 -2015), pathways to homelessness in Helsinki and future homeless policies were discussed in a seminar on February 10th, 2015. The seminar was be conducted in English.

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30.09.2014 The evaluation on the Finnish HF Program in 2014

Evaluation on the whole PAAVO program (2008-2015) will be carried out in 2014 as an international research review. The evaluation team consists of distinguished researchers on homelessness issues. The target of the process is to provide information and outlooks on measures in tackling homelessness after the present program period.

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13.08.2014 Seminar 17.9.2014: Perspectives on Housing First in Finland

Preliminary results of the international research evaluation on The Finnish Programme to Reduce Long-term Homelessness

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23.09.2013 Programme to eliminate long-term homelessness in Finland during the period 2012–2015

Information and the ARA´s report "Homelessness in Finland 2014"

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